Accommodation, Methods and Characterstics


Adaptation or adjustment is the way of life that people can properly survive. Accommodation refers to the process of social adjustment, which is similar but not identical to the biological adjustment process. Accommodation is the attainment of integration amongst people that allows for pleasant living by acquiring behavior patterns, beliefs, and attitudes in a social environment and assisting in social adoption.


Accommodation system in San Fransisco      Source: Aaron Kato

Sociologists use the term “accommodation” to describe the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups to achieve a sense of harmony with their surroundings.

For instance-

Humans managed to survive in the cave by adapting to the harsh environment. The adaptation of the cave environment with the group and survival was referred to as accommodation in the hunting and gathering society. On the other hand, in modern culture, people have begun to use virtual reality to preserve social distance in order to live a healthy life and save time.


Accepting exploitation by individuals

Adaptation is the consequence of social conflict because the weaker group always gives the stronger group room in society.  This means that accommodation is the result of exploited people’s hard work and accepts exploitation.

Era of Peace

It is the starting of a new era. Individuals or groups recognize the necessity of accommodation as a result of their survival in caves. Because fighting cannot continue indefinitely, they make way for accommodation.

Unaware Process

It is primarily an unconscious process because a newborn adjusts to his surroundings without even realizing it.

Essential and Universal

It is essential because society can work smoothly and resolve all types of conflicts, which is why it is always present to some degree in all societies. Basically it is a universal activity.

Endless Process

This social process is not confined to a given stage or fixed social situation, and people have to live in different situations throughout life. The process of accommodation does not break at all and it is a Continuous Process.

Love and Hatred

According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, accommodation is the outcome of a mix of two elements: love and hatred. People who are in love are more likely to cooperate with one another, but those who are in hate are more likely to create disagreements, become engaged with them, and then accommodate one another.


Cooperation, Types and Characteristics of Cooperation,


Cooperation is a fundamental social interaction in which two or more individuals or social groups collaborate to ensure effective communication and achieve a common goal.

The phrase “cooperation” is defined in two Latin words: “co” (around each other) and “operation” (to perform). That means cooperation entails collaborating or working with each other to achieve a common goal or goals.



Workers cooperating with each other in Bangladesh        Source:mohammad samir

Common end and organized effort are two elements of this social process. When multiple individuals share the same goals and recognize that they cannot achieve the objectives alone, they collaborate to achieve those goals.

For example-

In a Focus group Discussion of parents’ supervisor monitoring the whole discussion. If there suddenly any chaos happens with a topic discussion supervisor may be told everyone to keep silent. That silence is necessary to make the discussion fruitful from both ends. When they become silent that means all of them are cooperating to achieve the same goal.

It is also a fact that the same goal will not always be necessary; sometimes people want to collaborate with others to achieve a goal that is not required for facilitators to help the individual.


  • Social interaction between two or more individuals or groups 
  • Individuals or groups aware of their work
  • Individuals and groups formed personal relationships and meetings
  • A continual effort by a group of people.
  • It can help achieve common goals more effectively, and it is vital for personal and social progress.

Types of Cooperation

Several sociologists classified cooperation into different categories. Ogburn and Nimikoff divided the term into three main types:

General Cooperation

When some individuals cooperate for common purposes, that interaction is known as general cooperation. We experience this in our everyday work, and it’s human nature to want to help others.

For instance-

On the weekend when a family arranged a gathering for friends and relatives, everyone works together to make this a colorful experience.

Friendly Cooperation

When we want to achieve the pleasure and fulfillment of our group, we cooperate in a helpful manner and this is called friendly cooperation.

For example- dancing or singing at a party

Helping Cooperation

This type is known as work for supporting victims who face accidents or disasters.


Maclver and Page have divided the process into two main types-

Direct Cooperation

All those related behaviors in which people accomplish things together are considered direct cooperation.

For instance- Camp together, perform together, carry a load, etc.

Cooperation 2

A family is fishing together

The important feature of this type of collaboration is that people perform identical tasks that they could perform independently. This form of collaboration is entirely voluntary.

Indirect Cooperation

This type encompasses activities in which individuals perform distinct tasks together toward a common goal.

For example- There are numerous parts to work within a motor vehicle. All of the employees work on different parts of the vehicle and then put it together to make it complete.

What is community? Elements, and Characterstics


The term “community” refers to a group of people who live in a common circle and interact with one another in various aspects of life. Human beings have this as a common social trait of being together. Individuals in the community share common social beliefs, norms, traditions, and a desire to be together. It is impossible to build communities without these.

Characteristics of Communities

The meaning of community can be better understood if we analyze its characteristics or elements. These characteristics decide whether a group is a community or not. However, community has the following characteristics or elements:

A group of people

When a group of people live together and share a common life and blinded by a strong sense of community consciousness at that moment a community is formed. Hence a group of people is the first pre-requisites of it.

A definite locality

It is a territorial group.

Community Sentiment

Its sentiment refers to a strong sense of awe feeling among the members or a feeling of belonging together.


Among the members similarities in language, culture, customs, and traditions and in many other things is observed. Similarities in these respects are responsible for the development of community sentiment.

Let’s look at some more specific examples to better understand communities characteristics-

The Khasia community lives throughout the Sylhet region of Bangladesh. More than five hundred years ago, they came to this country from Assam (India). Although no alphabet in their language has been found, oral language is rich in folklore. The Khasias believe that the beginning of human civilization is in the hands of women. And they have maintained the matriarchy in their own society since the beginning. Women can marry men from any tribe they want, but the husband must live in the wife’s house for the rest of his life. Men’s rights are protected in Khasia society, despite women’s hegemony.

We now refer to khasia as a community because it is a group of people who share common interests and similarities in different aspects like- they share the same beliefs, languages, emotions, and feelings, and they live in a specific geographical area.

Elements of Community

In a seminal 1986 study, McMillan and Chavis identify four elements of “sense of community


Feeling of belonging or of sharing a sense of personal relatedness


mattering, making a difference to a group and of the group mattering to its members


integration and fulfillment of needs, Shared Emotional Connections

Many communities around the world have not only a legal system and a permanent structure for the members’ livelihood but also various associations and organizations to protect the members’ various interests, emotions, and feelings. On the basis of its members, communities may be small or large. Many small communities throughout the world are considered isolated from the larger community.

For instance-

We can talk about the Indian communities in Canada. Just as they have a separate entity from the larger population of those countries; they are also isolated from communities of their own country.

Today we also know about different types of virtual communities that have been developed based on thousands of social or web media platforms. The structure of communities in modern society is changing for a variety of reasons. As in a virtual community, connectivity, news sharing, and protecting people’s interests are easier than ever, but in reality, sentiment and solidarity toward the communities and its members are dwindling.