Cooperation, Types and Characteristics of Cooperation,


Cooperation is a fundamental social interaction in which two or more individuals or social groups collaborate to ensure effective communication and achieve a common goal.

The phrase “cooperation” is defined in two Latin words: “co” (around each other) and “operation” (to perform). That means cooperation entails collaborating or working with each other to achieve a common goal or goals.



Workers cooperating with each other in Bangladesh        Source:mohammad samir

Common end and organized effort are two elements of this social process. When multiple individuals share the same goals and recognize that they cannot achieve the objectives alone, they collaborate to achieve those goals.

For example-

In a Focus group Discussion of parents’ supervisor monitoring the whole discussion. If there suddenly any chaos happens with a topic discussion supervisor may be told everyone to keep silent. That silence is necessary to make the discussion fruitful from both ends. When they become silent that means all of them are cooperating to achieve the same goal.

It is also a fact that the same goal will not always be necessary; sometimes people want to collaborate with others to achieve a goal that is not required for facilitators to help the individual.


  • Social interaction between two or more individuals or groups 
  • Individuals or groups aware of their work
  • Individuals and groups formed personal relationships and meetings
  • A continual effort by a group of people.
  • It can help achieve common goals more effectively, and it is vital for personal and social progress.

Types of Cooperation

Several sociologists classified cooperation into different categories. Ogburn and Nimikoff divided the term into three main types:

General Cooperation

When some individuals cooperate for common purposes, that interaction is known as general cooperation. We experience this in our everyday work, and it’s human nature to want to help others.

For instance-

On the weekend when a family arranged a gathering for friends and relatives, everyone works together to make this a colorful experience.

Friendly Cooperation

When we want to achieve the pleasure and fulfillment of our group, we cooperate in a helpful manner and this is called friendly cooperation.

For example- dancing or singing at a party

Helping Cooperation

This type is known as work for supporting victims who face accidents or disasters.


Maclver and Page have divided the process into two main types-

Direct Cooperation

All those related behaviors in which people accomplish things together are considered direct cooperation.

For instance- Camp together, perform together, carry a load, etc.

Cooperation 2

A family is fishing together

The important feature of this type of collaboration is that people perform identical tasks that they could perform independently. This form of collaboration is entirely voluntary.

Indirect Cooperation

This type encompasses activities in which individuals perform distinct tasks together toward a common goal.

For example- There are numerous parts to work within a motor vehicle. All of the employees work on different parts of the vehicle and then put it together to make it complete.

Tags: No tags

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *